The earliest archeological findings of windows with glass panes were found in the Roman cities of Pompei and Herculaneum by the Gulf of Naples, which were buried in volcanic ashes and mud during the eruption of Vesuvius in 79 AD. During excavations in both cities, different profiles from skylights and windows made of wood, iron and bronze were found along with brackets and other fittings. The windowpanes were made of cast glass or the transparent mineral lapis specularis.
The Romans invented techniques for manufacturing window glass, such as the method for casting glass and the method of cylinder glass. With the collapse of the West Roman Empire in 476, knowledge and techniques were lost, and it was not until the Middle Ages that Catholic monks resumed making window glass.